The Cold War was the time period from 1945 to 1990 where there was constant tension and struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies.Actual military conflict never occurred, but there were great amounts of hostility and rivalry between the two sides, as well as intense clashes of economic and diplomatic policies.
After almost a century of peace, feelings of uneasiness and distrust settled between the two countries after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 when the Communists gained control of Russia, established the Soviet Union. The newly developed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, known as the USSR, declared ideological war against all western capitalist nations.Disapproving of this new type of government, the U.S. tried to intervene, sending over 10,000 troops from 1918-1920. They also refused to officially recognize the state until 1933.(Encarta 1997, 1) Fighting together against Germany during World War II created an alliance, although it did not last for long.The friendship rapidly began to dissipate due to disagreements over the reconstruction of Eastern Europe. The Russian leader, Joseph Stalin, wanted to increase his hold on the area and institute Communism upon its people, and it was up to the U.S to lead the fight against it.Feelings of distrust heightened when both !
sides failed to honor promises and agreements previously made.The two countries had gone from "wartime allies to bitter enemies." (Cayton, Perry, Reed, and Winkler, 1999, 535)
In 1945, the U.S wanted to open Europe for free capitalist trade, but the USSR disagreed.The Truman Doctrine was issued in March of 1947, which stated that the U.S. would "defend all free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures."Russia was on a mission for world conquest, and the United States vowed to intervene wherever communism threatened (Cayt