What were the differences between the environments faced by the Romans when the characteristics social and political institutions of their state were forming and those of the Greek world when the polis was taking form? How did the Romans react differently to the conditions they faced? What social institutions formed in Rome as a result, and how did these help Rome to create a large and stable empire?
Romans created a civilization that has shaped subsequent world history for 2,000 years. The remains of vast building projects, including roads and bridges, enormous baths and aqueducts, temples and theaters, as well as entire towns in the North African desert, still mark Rome’s former dominion. Cities throughout Western Europe stand on Roman foundations. Rome grew from a tiny settlement to an emerging empire while developing from monarchy to a republican form of government.
The land and environment of Italy provided the Romans with a secure home from which to expand. Roman republic started with their conflict against the Latins, who tried to break away from Rome and fought a war. At that time Romans feared the Samnites, another group of people and they stopped fighting with the Latins and offered them to join in. In doing so Romans came up with the idea of latin citizenship, and then gradually as the Romans expanded their territory to the whole of Italy after some internal conflicts everyone in Italy was granted Roman citizenship, slowly as the Romans defeated other lands in the Mediterranean basin, they never tried to impose their rule on captured lands but made them states, which were allowed to rule under the Roman umbrella by paying taxes and provide services to the Roman Army accepting the Roman superiority. And as time passed by at one point in history everyone under the Roman Empire got Roman citizenship.
The Roman aristocrats provided the leadership for the establishment of the Roman Republic, and they continued to dominate …